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Ethical issues in randomised trials in surgery

George Thomas

DOI: 10.20529/IJME.2020.099


Clinical trials are required in surgery to evaluate existing procedures and to assess the value of new techniques. Except for observational studies which are considered useful only to propose a hypothesis, all study designs require a comparator group. The randomised controlled trial (RCT) is recognised as the most robust study design. There are specific ethical difficulties in conducting RCTs.

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